Knowledge Center

Poster / Dec 06, 2017

Ultrasonic versus Two-Fluid Nozzle in a Spray Drying Process

  • Diana Fernandes
  • Raquel Barros
  • Claudia Moura
  • João Pereira
  • Luisa Corvo
  • Eunice Costa
DDL 2017

When developing a dry powder inhaler formulation (DPI) for a biopharmaceutical two main aspects should be considered:

  • Powder Aerodynamic Performance;
  • Biopharmaceutical Integrity:


Particle Engineering Technology plays a pivotal role - Spray Drying (SD) emerges as a viable candidate

  • From an inhalation standpoint: Relative simplicity, cost effectiveness and scalability with increased control over key aerosol features;
  • From a biopharmaceutical standpoint: Mild Temperature exposure, commercial availability of miniaturized SD set-ups;


Spray Drying atomization step might constitute a stress source for the processed biopharmaceutical, ultimately causing its degradation:

  • On conventional lab-scale spray dryers, this atomization step is performed using Two-Fluid (2F) Nozzle atomizers that produce a turbulent spray;
  • Ultrasonic (US) Nozzle atomizers, on the other hand, produce a low velocity spray that could be envisaged as a possible alternative.